Glossary

Assessment Criteria
Assesment Criteria is a group of related assessment questions that form the basis for judging or deciding whether or not to fund a Project. Used once the Project is declared compliant during the administrative and eligibility check
 
Activity         
An activity is a specific task performed for which resources are used. It's a work package component which may or may not result in a deliverable or an output
 
Acronym      
The acronym is the abbreviation used for the Project title or Project partners
 
Added-value  
Added-value is an additional benefit to the value created by actions of individuals and structures on one side of a border. It results from cooperation across borders, and it reflects the broader relevance and significance of an action with a view to presenting models and mechanisms which can be applied across borders
 
Administrative & Eligibility check     
An Administrative & Eligibility check is the check performed in the first step of the Project selection process after the call for proposals closes. The purpose is to verify the basic Programme and Call for Project Proposals requirements. Failure to comply with some of these criteria can lead to (1) outright rejection of the application, or (2) a request for further information or clarification
 
Annual Implementation Report       
Annual Implementation Reports are documents reporting the progress of Programmes, prepared annually by Programmes, approved by monitoring committees and submitted to the European Commission
 
Applicants's Manual  
The Applicants's Manual is a document that sets out the rules for the call for proposals, including the purpose of the call, the target groups, costs which may be financed, and the selection criteria. It also provides practical information on how to complete the application form, what documents must be annexed, and rules and procedures for applying
 
Application Form      
An Application Form is a binding document which describes the Project (objectives, results, outputs, partnership) and gives detailed information on the work plan and financial figures. The appplication form has to be submitted during the selection process and is assessed by the Programme bodies, in order to select the Projects to be funded by the Programme. Once the Project is approved, the application form becomes the reference document for the whole implementation of the Project until its closure. The content of it may change to a certain extent during the implementation, but only according to the Programme's Project modifications rules and procedures
 
Application Package  
An Application Package consists of all documents required when applying for funding. The essential part of the package is the application form, which is often accompanied by different annexes
 
Audit  
An audit is the process of verification that implementation of the Programme is in line with EU regulations and Programme rules. Audit is delivered yearly by an Audit Authority and it consist of two parts; one is audit of operations which is a verification of eligibility of expenditures claimed from and reimbursed by the EC. The second is a system audit, which is the verification that all the systems described in the description of management and control system function properly.
 
Audit Authority        
An Audit Authority is either a national, regional or local authority or body, functionally independent of the Managing Authority (MA) and Certifying Authority (CA). The AA is designated by the Member State for each Cooperation Programme, and is responsible for verifying the successful implementation of the Programme. The AA also monitors, among other things, Project compliance with Programme rules, national rules and European regulations
 
Audit trail     
An adequate audit trail ensures that the accounting records maintained and the supporting documents held at the level of the certifying authority, managing authority, intermediate bodies and beneficiaries are adequate for tracing expenditures
 
Beneficiary   
A beneficiary is a Project partner that receives Programme co-financing for the expenditure related to their activities in the Project
 
Budget Line   
A budget line is a set of cost centres that facilitates reporting on expenditure and revenue. Each cost item can be allocated to one budget line only, according to the nature of the cost. The term budget line is equivalent to the term “category of expenditure” used in the Regulations
 
Call for Project Proposals    
Calls for Project Proposals is a mechanism whereby a selection process is launched to choose candidates/Projects on a competitive basis. Actors are invited to submit Project proposals. Calls for Project Proposals are publicly announced. Information is provided on the type of Projects that will be considered for funding and on specific conditions to be met in each Call for Project Proposals. Only part of the proposed Projects will pass the selection test
 
Capitalisation
Capitalisation of results is a process of capturing, analysing and using the results to support their (re-)use and/or their transfer, ultimately promoting improved performance and delivery
 
Certificate of Verified Expenditure (CVE)   
A Certificate of Verified Expenditure (CVE)certifies that a controller fulfilled the requirements of its Partner State
 
Certifying Authority  
A Certifying Authprity is the body responsible for submitting certified statements of expenditure to the Commission, and for ensuring eligibility with EU, national and Programme rules
 
Cohesion policy        
Cohesion Policy is the European Union's strategy to promote and support the ‘overall harmonious development’ of its Member States and regions. Enshrined in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (Art. 174), the EU's cohesion policy aims to strengthen economic and social cohesion by reducing disparities in the level of development between regions. The policy focuses on key areas which will help the EU face up to the challenges of the 21st century and remain globally competitive. Approximately 32.5 % of the EU budget 2014-2020 (equivalent to ca. EUR 351.8 billion over seven years at 2014 prices) is allocated to financial instruments which support cohesion policy. These are managed and delivered in partnership between the European Commission, the Member States and stakeholders at the local and regional level
 
Communication Strategy
A Communication Strategy is a document on a Project or Programme level setting out communication objectives, key messages, target groups, activities, budget, timetable, and people responsible for implementation and evaluation measures
 
Control         
Control means any measure taken to provide reasonable assurance regarding the effectiveness, efficiency and economy of operations, the reliability of reporting, the safeguarding of assets and information, the prevention, detection and correction of fraud and irregularities and their follow-up. Control also includes the adequate management of risks related to the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions, taking into account the multiannual character of Programmes, as well as the nature of the payments concerned. Controls may involve various checks
 
Controller     
Controller is an abbreviated term for first level controller
 
Cooperation Programme     
A Cooperation Programme is a detailed plan which sets out how money from the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) will be spent during the programming period, within the Interreg context. They can be drawn up for a specific region or a country-wide thematic goal (e.g., Environment). Each Cooperation Programme specifies which of the 11 thematic objectives that guide cohesion policy in the 2014-2020 programming period will be addressed through the funding available under the Cooperation Programmes
 
De Minimis Aid         
De Minimis Aid is small amounts of public funding constituing State Aid (see: state aid) given to a single beneficiary which is unlikely to distorst the competition.  De Minimis Ceiling is the maximum amount of public funding given to a single beneficiary (up to €200,000 over a 3-year fiscal period) that has a negligible impact on trade and competition, and does not require notification
 
Decommitment        
Decommitment is a mechanism that aims to improve both the speed of Programme development and the monitoring of flows of Programme funding. The yearly allocations of a Programme budget are defined in the Cooperation Programme. These funds have to be spent within three years (by the end of n+3). If they have not been spent they are returned to the European Commission and “de-committed” from the Programme
 
Deliverable    
A deliverable is a side-product or service of the Project that contributes to the development of a Project's main output
 
Direct costs   
Direct costs are costs that can be attributed directly to the Project. They are directly related to an individual activity of the partner organisation, where the link with this individual activity can be demonstrated (for instance, through direct time registration)
 
Dissemination
Dissemination of results is the process of making the results and outputs of a Project available to the stakeholders and to a wider audience. Dissemination is essential for take-up, and take-up is crucial for the success of the Project and for the sustainability of outputs in the long term
 
Double financing/ funding    
Double financing/funding is what happens when the same item (expenditure) is submitted for reimbursement to several donors in order to obtain payment for that item from all of them
 
e-Cohesion    
e-Cohesion is the computerised exchange of data. Managing Authorities must ensure that all the data exchange between Programme authorities and beneficiaries (i.e., after signature of the Subsidy Contract) can be done via an electronic data exchange platform. This requirement aims at decreasing paper flow in the Programmes
 
Eligibility Criteria      
Eligibility Criteria is the criteria used to assess the eligibility of the Project. Whether the Project is eligible or not eligible depends on rules set at EU and Programme level
 
Eligibility period        
The eligibility period is the timeframe during which Project expenditure must be incurred and paid (unless simplified cost options are used) in order to qualify for reimbursement from the Programme funds
 
Eligible area  
An eligible area is the teritory defined in the Cooperation Programme where Project activities co-financed by an Interreg Programme should be implemented
 
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)      
The European Region Development Fund (ERDF) is an EU fund which is intended to help reduce imbalances between regions of the Community. The Fund was set up in 1975, and grants financial assistance for development Projects in the poorer regions. In terms of financial resources, the ERDF is by far the largest of the EU's Structural Funds. The main aim of the ERDF is to overcome the structural deficiencies of the poorer regions in order to reduce the gap between these regions and the richer ones
 
European Territorial Cooperation (ETC)/ Interreg  
The European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) objective of the EU's Cohesion Policy supports cooperation across borders of the EU. The 3 dimensions of the ETC Objective:
(1) Cross-Border Cooperation: helps transform regions located on either side of  borders of the European Union into strong economic and social poles. In particular cross-border actions are encouraged in the fields of entrepreneurship, improving joint management of natural resources, supporting links between urban and rural areas, improving access to transport and communication networks, developing joint use of infrastructure, administrative cooperation and capacity building, employment, community interaction, culture and social affairs;
(2) Transnational Cooperation: promotes cooperation among greater European regions, including the ones surrounding sea basins (e.g., Baltic Sea Region, North Sea, Mediterranean and Atlantic Area) or mountain ranges (e.g., Alpine Space) and facilitates coordinated strategic responses to joint challenges like flood management, transport and communication corridors, international business and research linkages, urban development and others. Special attention is given to outermost and island regions (e.g., Indian Ocean, Caribbean Area or Northern Periphery);
(3) Interregional Cooperation: provides a framework for the exchange of experiences between local and regional actors from across Europe in order to contribute to the EU’s strategies on growth, jobs and sustainable development. In addition, it aims at reducing disparities by matching less experienced regions with more advanced regions in the various policy fields such as innovation, demographic change, energy supply and climate change
 
Expenditure   
Expenditure is payment of cash or cash-equivalent for goods or services as evidenced by an invoice or receipt
 
External Expertise & Services        
External Expertise & Services is the budget line that covers expenditures of contracting experts, not staff of beneficiaries, and external services - for example, hiring a venue for an event
 
First Level Control (FLC)
See "control"
 
Flat Rate      
Flat Rate is one of the simplified cost options, and these rates are calculated by applying a percentage fixed ex-ante to one or several other categories of eligible costs. Flat rates involve approximations of costs and are defined based on fair, equitable and verifiable calculation methods, or they are established by the Fund specific regulations
 
Fraud 
Fraud is intentional action leading to unlawful gain and unfair advantage. 
 
Indicator
An indicator is the measurement of an objective to be met, a resource mobilised, an effect obtained, a gauge of quality or a context variable. It should be made up by a definition, a value and a measurement unit
 
Indirect costs
Indirect costs are costs that cannot be assigned in full to the Project, as they link to various activities of the partner organisation. As such costs cannot be connected directly to an individual activity, it is difficult to determine precisely the amount attributable to this activity (for instance, telephone, water, electricity expenses, etc.)
 
Infrastructure & Works       
Infrastructure & Works is a budget line that covers costs related to investments in infrastructure that do not fall into the scope of other budget lines. This includes costs for site preparation, delivery, handling, installation, renovation, and purchase of land, when applicable
 
Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA)     
Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) are funds available to partners from countries engaged in the (pre-) accession process to the EU: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey, and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
 
IPA country
An IPA country is a country negotiating to join the EU, prospective or aspiring or would-be members, EU contenders, possible/likely/potential future member countries
 
Irregularity   
An irregularity is an amount of expenditure found ineligible after it was reimbursed to a Programme by EC. Consequently, it must be paid back to the Commission
 
Joint Secretariat       
A Joint Secretariat is the body responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the Programme. It is usually specialised in all communication ‘down’ to the Project level and in processing the reporting information received from the Projects

Lead Partner (Benefiaciary) 
A Lead Partner is the Project partner who takes the overall responsibility for the development and the implementation of a Project. Each Lead Partner is expected to conclude the Partnership Agreement (with its Project partners) and the Subsidy Contract (with the Managing Authority), ensure a sound cross-border/transnational Project management as well as the Project implementation, and transfer the due EU contributions to the single partners
 
Legal representative 
A legal representative is a person authorised to sign binding documents (e.g., application form, subsidy contract) on behalf of an organisation
 
Lump Sum    
Lump Sum is one of the simplified cost options. It is a total allocation of the grant (calculated ex-ante), paid to the Project upon completion of pre-defined terms of agreement on activities and/or outputs. Lump sums involve approximations of costs established based on fair, equitable and verifiable calculation methods
 
Macro-regional Strategy     
Macro-regional Strategy is an integrated framework endorsed by the European Council to address common challenges faced by a defined geographical area. Single Macro-regional Strategy is developed for Member States and other countries located in the same geographical area benefiting from strengthened cooperation and coordination contributing to achievement of economic, social and territorial cohesion. Implementation of a macro-regioal strategy may be supported by any fund or Programme operated at EU, national, regional or even local level
 
Managing Authority (MA)     
The Managing Authority (MA) is the operationally-responsible body of the Programme. It ensures the effective and efficient implementation of the Programme, and delivers the Programme strategy in
accordance with preset quality standards. The MA therefore takes the lead in establishing systems and procedures, and ensures that these are maintained. The MA usually handles the more formal communications ‘upwards’ to the Member States and the European Commission
 
Member State (MS)  
A Member State is a state that is a member of the European Union. The EU currently has 28 Member States
 
Monitoring Committee (MC) 
The Monitoring Committee (MC) is a committee which provides each Member State with representation in the Programme and is steered by the Programme interest. The principle task of the MC is to ensure the quality and effectiveness of implementation and the accountability of the Programme implementation. It takes decisions on Programme level and needs to be kept informed of progress towards Programme objectives, the status of Programme finances and any problems in Programme level bodies and procedures
 
National Contribution
National Contribution is a counterpart to Programme co-financing secured by the partners (paid by the partners from their own resources, or paid to the partners from external sources). Depending on the source of contribution (partner’s own resources, external sources) and their legal status, the contribution can be public and/or private
 
NUTS: common classification of territorial units for statistics     
Abbreviated as NUTS, The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics has been created by Eurostat in order to provide a standard classification of the EU territory. It is a geographical nomenclature subdividing the territory of the European Union into regions at three different levels
 
Observer Partner     
An Observer Partner is a Project partner participating in the Project without financially contributing to it
 
Office & Administration
Office & Adminstration is the budget line that covers expenditure related to all costs relating to the maintenance of the office, stationery, postage, etc. necessary to implement Project activities
 
On-the-spot check   
On-the-spot checks refer to checks undertaken by FLC (and Managing Authorities) on the premises of a Project partner or any other Project-related site, for example in order to verify existence and reality of purchased goods and equipment. Often understood as referring to checks undertaken by FLC, JS or AA
 
Output indicator
An Output indictaor is an indicator that describes the physical product of spending resources through policy interventions
 
Partnership   
A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests. The partners in a partnership may be individuals, businesses, interest-based organizations, governments or combinations. They may work in a partnershiop to increase the likelihood of each achieving their mission, and to amplify their reach
 
Performance framework    
The performance framework is the basis which the European Commission will use to assess the performance of a Programme. They use the framework as a tool for examining the performance of the Programmes at the level of priorities against the milestones set for the end of 2018 and the end of the programming period. Where performance is unsatisfactory, the Commission may decide to issue a warning, propose reprogramming resources, or suspend funds

Pilot activity  
Pilot activity is a practical measure implemented in the context of a territorial cooperation Project that aims to test or pilot strategies and tools in the partner regions
 
Potential beneficiary 
A potential beneficiary is an entity that is eligible (in type, geographic location, etc) to apply for and receive funds from a Programme financed by ESI funds.

Preparation Costs
Preparation Costs are costs borne by Project partners when carrying out activities directly linked to preparation of the Project (e.g., development of the Project idea, meetings with Project partners/ Programme bodies (Contact Points, JS), preparation of the application, etc.).
 
Priority Axis  
A Priority Axis is a priority of the strategy in the Cooperation Programme. It contains operations which are related and have specific measurable goals
 
Procurement procedure      
Procurement procedure is a structured procedure designed to consult the market for the purchase of the goods and services. A procurement procedure leads to the conclusion of a public contract. The purpose of a procurement procedure is threefold: (1) to guarantee the widest possible participation of economic operators, (2) to ensure the transparency of operations, and (3) to obtain the desired quality of services, supplies and works at the best possible price
 
Programme Area
The Programme Area is a geographical area covered by a specific Programme or, in the case of a Programme covering more than one category of region, the geographical area corresponding to each separate category of region
 
Programme co-financing     
Programme co-financing is the Programme financial support provided to the Project. Depending on the Programme, this entails support from EU funds (ERDF, IPA II, ENI) and ERDF equivalent (e.g., Norwegian fund)
 
Progress Report      
The Porgress Report is a document written to describe the findings of an assessment that takes place during the Project by Project partners, that conveys details such as what objectives have been achieved, what resources have been expended, what problems have been encountered, and whether or not the Project is expected to be completed on time and within budget
 
Project
A Project is a sequence of tasks needed to achieve fixed objectives with limited resources (budget and staff) and within a defined timeframe
 
Project Partner (Beneficiary)        
A Project Partner is a partner organisation involved in the Project implementation
 
Real costs     
Real costs is expenditure actually incurred and paid (taking into account any rebate, discount or financial support) and supported by invoices or other documents of equivalent probative value
 
Recovery, recovered amounts       
Recovery refers to the process of regaining funds unduly paid by the EC. The amounts regained via this process are recovered amounts 

Reporting period      
A reporting period is a designated period of time during the Project lifetime; activities carried out and expenditure incurred and paid (unless simplified cost options apply) during a reporting period are presented in a Progress Report, and are subject to Programme co-financing
 
Result indicator        
A Result in dicator is an indicator that describes the result is the change sought (in the reference situation) in view of the specific objective to be achieved
 
Simplified Cost Options (SCO)        
Simplified Cost Options (SCO), contrary to real costs, modify the concept of expenditure paid by Project partners. They involve approximations of costs, and are calculated according to a pre-defined method (e.g., established by the Programme on the basis of a fair, equitable and verifiable calculation, or defined by the Fund specific regulations) based on outputs, results, or some other costs. The application of simplified cost options is a departure from the approach of tracing every euro of co-financed expenditure to individual supporting documents
 
Staff Costs   
Staff Costs is the budet line that covers expenditure related to all costs of hiring staff in the beneficiary's institution
 
State Aid      
State Aid means action by a (national, regional or local) public authority, using public resources, to favour certain undertakings or the production of certain goods. A business that benefits from such aid thus enjoys an advantage over its competitors. Control of State Aid thus reflects the need to maintain free and fair competition within the European Union. Aid which is granted selectively by Member States or through state resources and which may affect trade between Member States or distort competition is therefore prohibited (Article 107 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union - TFEU). State Aid may nonetheless be permitted if justified by objectives of general economic interest, if it falls within the General Block Exemption (e.g. Article 19 - Cooperation costs of SMEs in ETC), if it falls within de minims, or if it has been notified to and approved by DG Competition
 
Steering Committee (Project)        
The Steering Committee for Projects is a board made up of representatives of the Project partners or external stakeholders who provide guidance and take decisions on the implementation of the Project
 
Subsidy Contract     
A Subsidiy Contract is a grant agreement between the contracting authority (Managing Authority) and the Lead Partner
 
Thematic Objectives 
Thematic Objectives are investment priorities funded by the ESIFs. In the 2014-2020 programming period, the European Structural and Investment Funds, in particular the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Cohesion Fund, will support 11 investment priorities, also known as thematic objectives:
1. Strengthening research, technological development and innovation
2. Enhancing access to, and use and quality of information and communication technologies (ICT)
3. Enhancing the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
4. Supporting the shift towards a low-carbon economy in all sectors
5. Promoting climate change adaptation, risk prevention and management
6. Preserving and protecting the environment and promoting resource efficiency
7. Promoting sustainable transport and removing bottlenecks in key network infrastructures
8. Promoting sustainable and quality employment and supporting labour mobility
9. Promoting social inclusion, combating poverty and any discrimination
10. Investing in education, training and vocational training for skills and lifelong learning
11. Enhancing institutional capacity of public authorities and stakeholders and efficient public administration
At the same time, the first four of these thematic objectives constitute key priorities for the ERDF, and a significant part of the investment will focus on these areas (between 50% and 80%, depending on the region’s level of development).
The goal of these objectives is to focus regional policy funding on areas that deliver the highest benefits to citizens, creating synergies between the funded Projects and avoiding an excessive fragmentation of funding
 
Transnational Cooperation   
Transnational Cooperation means collaboration between functional areas. It promotes cooperation among greater European regions, including the ones surrounding sea basins or mountain ranges, and facilitates coordinated strategic responses to joint challenges conducive to integrated territorial development
 
Travel & Accomodation Costs
Travel & Accommodation is the budget line that covers travel costs, accommodation costs, costs of meals, visa costs, and/or daily allowances. It applies only to staff of the partner organisation and relates to delivery of the Project
 
Verification   
Verification means measures undertaken by FLC and the relevant Programme bodies to ensure that co-financed products and services have been delivered and that expenditure declared has been paid, complies with applicable law, the Cooperation Programme and the conditions for support of the Project
 
Work Package
A Work Package is a group of related Project activities required to produce Project main outputs
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